The 18-O Chilean Uprising and the Making of Transnational Political identies


This work focuses on the Chilean uprising of October 2019, and briefly characterizes its events. However, the core interest is to observe and question the international impact and everyday transnational features of this movement. Drawing on G. Schiller's thoughts and combining them with transnational social movements' scholarship, the analysis develops around two key axes. On the one hand, it charts mainly indirect diffusion through the spread of ideas and practices that travelled from Chile (and from Latin America) and grew to become embedded in social movements worldwide. On the other hand, it offers an ethnographic account of the transnational networks that have mobilized in support of this struggle in Italy, with particular attention paid to Chileans abroad. In this way, our work highlights the parallel movement from everyday transnational experiences to the formation of transnational political identities, and from shared political identities to transnational daily interactions. By exploring the interplay between different diffusion mechanisms, this case study contributes to the discussion of the role of political agency in shaping diffusion dynamics, and offers new insights into the construction of transnational collective identities.

DOI Code: 10.1285/i20356609v15i1p223

Keywords: Chile; Diffusion; Engaged Research; October 2019 Uprising; Social Movements; Transnationalism


Allen M. (2017), The SAGE Encyclopaedia of Communication Research Methods, London: SAGE.

Ataç I., Rygiel K., and Stierl M. (2016), “Introduction: The Contentious Politics of Refugee and Migrant Protest and Solidarity Movements: Remaking Citizenship from the Margins”, Citizenship Studies 20(5): 527-544.

Barglowski, K. (2018), “Where, What and Whom to Study? Principles, Guidelines and Empirical Examples of Case Selection and Sampling in Migration Research”, in R. Zapata-Barrero and E. Yalaz (eds.), Qualitative Research in European Migration Studies, New York: Springer, pp. 75-92.

Boccagni P., and M. Schrooten (2018), “Participant Observation in Migration Studies: An Overview and Some Emerging Issues”, in R. Zapata-Barrero and E. Yalaz (eds.), Qualitative Research in European Migration Studies, New York: Springer, pp. 209-225.

Boni S., A. Koensler and A. Rossi (2020), Etnografie Militanti. Prospettive e Dilemmi, Milan: Meltemi.

Bringel B., and T. Marques (2021), “Sociologia Política do Exílio: Ativismo Transnacional, Redes Militantes e Perfis de Exilados”, Revista Brasilera de Sociologia, 9(21): 155-180.

Bringel B., and G. Pleyers (2017), Protesta e Indignación Global. Los Movimientos Sociales en el Nuevo Orden Mundial, Buenos Aires: CLACSO.

Chabot, S. (2012), Transnational Roots of the Civil Rights Movement: African American explorations of the Gandhian repertoire, Lanham: Lexington Books.

Cohen R. (1997), Global diasporas. An introduction, London: Routledge.

Clifford J. (1994), “Diasporas”, Cultural Anthropology 9 (3), 302-338.

della Porta D., and Tarrow S. (2005), Transnational Protest and Global Activism, Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

della Porta D., and Mattoni A. (2014), Spreading Protest: Social Movements in Times of Crisis, Colchester: ECPR Press.

Durán G., and M. Kremerman (2020), Los Verdaderos Sueldos De Chile, Santiago de Chile: Estudios de la Fundación SOL.

Faist T. (2000), “Transnationalization in international migration: implications for the study of citizenship and culture”, Ethnic and Racial Studies 23(2): 189-222.

Featherstone D. (2012), Solidarity Hidden Histories and Geographies of Internationalism, London: Zed Books.

Follegati L., and P. Ferretti (2020), “Hasta Que Valga La Pena Vivir: Violencia Y Reproducción Social Como Claves De La Emergencia Feminista Contemporánea En América Latina”, Anuario Escuela de Historia 32.

Fominaya C.F. (2015), “Debunking Spontaneity: Spain's 15-M/Indignados as Autonomous Movement”, Journal of Social, Cultural and Political Protest, 14(2): 142-163.

Fominaya C.F., and Gillan K. (2017), “Navigating the Technology-Media-Movements Complex”, Social Movement Studies, 16(4): 383-402.

Gago V., et al. (2018), 8M Constelación Feminista. ¿Cuál Es Tu Huelga? ¿Cuál Es Tu Lucha?, Buenos Aires: Tinta Limón.

Haraway D. (1988), “Situated Knowledges: The Science Question in Feminism and the Privilege of Partial Perspective”, Feminist Studies 14 (3), 575-599.

Haydu J. (2020), “Adding Time to Social Movements Diffusion”, Social Movement Studies, 19(5-6): 625-639.

Instituto Nacional Derechos Humanos - INDH (2020), Reporte General De Datos Sobre Violaciones A Los Derechos Humanos. Revised:

January 15, 2021, Retrieved: March 19, 2020 (

Kolins Givan R., M. Roberts and S. Soule (2010), The Diffusion of Social Movements. Actors, Mechanisms, and Political Effects, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

de Jong S., and P. Dannecker (2018), “Connecting And Confronting Transnationalism: Bridging Concepts And Moving Critique”, Identities 25(5): 493-506.

Melucci, A. (1989), “Nomads of the Present: Social Movements and Individual Needs”, in J. Keane and P. Mier (eds.), Contemporary Society, Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Melucci, A. (1995), “The Process of Collective Identity”, in H. Johnston and B. Klandermans (eds.), Social Movements and Culture, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp. 41-63.

Morawska E. (2018), “Qualitative Migration Research: Viable Goals, Open-Ended Questions, and Multidimensional Answers”, in R. Zapata-Barrero and E. Yalaz (eds.), Qualitative Research in European Migration Studies, New York: Springer, pp. 113-132.

Nocera R., and C. Rolle Cruz (2010), Settantatré. Cile e Italia, Destini Incrociati, Naples: Think Thanks Edizioni.

Núcleo de Sociología Contingente NUDESOC (2020), Informe De Resultados Official Encuesta Zona Cero. Revised: January 15, 2021, Retrieved: November 27, 2019 (

Polletta F., and J.M. Jasper (2001), “Collective Identity and Social Movements”, Annual Review of Sociology 27: 283-305.

Portes A., L.E. Guarnizo, and P. Landolt (1999), “The Study Of Transnationalism: Pitfalls And Promise Of An Emergent Research Field”, Ethnic and Racial Studies 22 (2): 217-237.

Quirico M., and V. Lomellini (2014), “Italy: The ‘Chilean Lesson’ Between The Legacy Of The Struggle Against Fascism And The Threat Of New Authoritarian Shifts”, in K. Christiaens, I. Goddeeris, and M. Rodríguez García (eds.), European Solidarity with Chile 1970s-1980s, Frankfurt: Peter Lang Edition, pp. 239-256.

Romanos E. (2016) “Immigrants as Brokers: Dialogical Diffusion from Spanish Indignados to Occupy Wall Street”, Social Movement Studies 15(3): 247-262.

Ruiz Encina C. (2019), La Politica En El Neoliberismo. Experiencias Latinoamericanas, Santiago de Chile: Lom Ediciones.

Ruiz Encina C. (2020), Octubre Chileno. La Irrupción De Un Nuevo Pueblo, Santiago de Chile: Tauros.

Sageman M. (2004), Understanding Terror Networks, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Sousa Santos, Boaventura de (2002) “Para uma Sociologia das Ausências e uma Sociologia das Emergencias”, Revista Crítica de Ciências Sociais 63: 237-280.

Santos F. (2020), “Social Movements and the Politics of Care: Empathy, Solidarity and Eviction Blockades”, Social Movement Studies 19(2): 125-143.

Schiller N.G. (2004), “Transnationality”, in D. Nugent and J. Vincent (eds.), A Companion to the Anthropology of Politics, Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 448-467.

Segato R. (2003), Las Estructuras Elementales De La Violencia, Buenos Aires: Universidad Nacional de Quilmes.

Simalchik J. (2006), “The Material Culture of Chilean Exile: A Transnational Dialogue”, Refuge 23(2): 95-105.

Soule S. (2004), “Diffusion process within and across social movements”, in D. Snow, S. Soule, and H. Kriesi (eds), The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements, Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 294-310.

Tarrow, S. (2005), The New Transnational Activism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Zamponi L. (2018), Social Movements, Memory and Media, New York: Springer.

Zamponi, L. and P. Daphi (2014), “Breaks and continuities in and between cycles of protest. Memories and legacies of the global justice movement in the context of anti-austerity mobilisations”, in D. della Porta and A. Mattoni (eds.) Spreading protest: Social movements in times of crisis, Colchester: ECPR Press, pp. 193-225.

Zschache U., M. Theiss, M. and Paschou (2020), “What Is Solidarity About? Views of Transnational Organisations’ Activists in Germany, Poland, and Greece”, Sociological Research Online 1-21.

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribuzione - Non commerciale - Non opere derivate 3.0 Italia License.