Redistribution, recognition, power: Austerity or an alternative Kaleckian feminist macroeconomic model in the EU?


Abstract


The aim of this paper is twofold. The first is to highlight the regressive impacts on gender equality in Europe of the EU’s macroeconomic model and governance, despite the claims in official EU do­cuments that the intention is to close the gender gap, with reference to research into gender and gender-blind austerity policies and feminist commentary on the social content of macroeconomic policies. The second aim is to assess these processes from both a political-philosophical and an economic perspective. From a political-philosophical perspective this paper aims to update Nancy Fraser’s focus on “redistribu­tion/recognition”, in order to show how the austerity paradigm – by increasing economic disadvantages for women – prevents women’s equal participation in the public sphere and fosters political practices of “institu­tio­na­lized misrecognition”. The review of Fraser’s analytical perspective serves to highlight the com­­plici­ty between economic injustice and maldistribution (exploitation, female economic marginaliza­tion, insecurity, female unemployment) and cultural injustice and misrecognition, and to focus attention on the fundamental need for gender-aware distributional policies. In a Feminist-Post-Keynesian/Kaleckian eco­no­­mic paradigm, new research emphasizes the economic relevance of gender-aware redistribution, star­ting from a range of hypotheses. At the same time, in this theoretical perspective, the inherently confron­tational nature of gender-aware distribution policies is shown. The interdisciplinary approach propo­sed in this paper provides an analytical framework for debating women’s political claims in Europe

Keywords: austerity policies; economic justice; feminist economics; gender equality; Kalecki

References


Alesina A. and S. Ardagna (2010), “Large Changes in Fiscal Policy: Taxes versus Spending”, in Brown J.R.(ed), Tax Policy and the Economy, vol. 24, NBER, Chicago, The University of Chicago Press.

Austen A. and T. Jefferson (2010), “Feminist and Post Keynesian economics:

Challenges and opportunity”, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 34(6), 1109-1122, doi: 10.1093/cje/bem046.

Bakker I. (1994), The strategic silence. Gender and Economic Policy, London: Zed Books.

Bhaduri A. and S. Marglin (1990), “Unemployment and the real wage: the economic bases for contesting political ideologies”, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 14 (4), 375-93.

Beneria L. (2003), Gender, Development and globalization. Economics as if people mattered, New York and London: Routledge.

Beneria L., A.M. May and D.L. Strassmann (2011), Feminist economics, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Bettio F. (2012), “Women and men and the Financial crises. Seven lessons from Europe”, Europe and Gender Equality Review n.2/2012, EGGE – European Network of legal Experts in the field of gender equality - European

Commission 2012.

Blaug M. (1992), Michal Kalecki (1899 – 1970), Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Publishing.

Blecker R.A. (2002), “Distribution, demand and growth in neo Kaleckian macro models”, in M. Setterfield (ed), The economics of Demand Led Growth,

Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar, 129- 52.

Blecker R.A. and S. Seguino (2002), “Macroeconomic Effects of Reducing Gender Wage Inequality in an Export-Oriented Semi-Industrialized Economy”, Review of Development Economics 6(1): 103-119, doi: 10.1111/1467-9361.00144.

Brancaccio E. and M. Passarella (2012), L’austerità è di destra . E sta distruggendo l’Europa, Milano, Franco Angeli.

Bumberg R. L. (ed)(1991), Gender, Family and Economy. The triple overlap, Newbury Park, Sage.

Bunting D., “Distributional basis of Aggregate Consumption”, Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, 20(3), 389- 413.

Busch K, C. Hermann, K. Hinrichs and T. Schulten (2013), Euro Crisis, Austerity Policy and the European Social Model. How crises Policies in

Southern Europe Threaten the EU’s Social Dimension, Berlin: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, International Policy Analyses.

Cesaratto S. and M. Pivetti (eds)(2012), Oltre L’austerità, Gli e-book di MicroMega, 1, (www.micromega.net, ISNB 9788898114030).

Charusheela S. (2010), “Gender and the stability of consumption: a feminist contribution to post Keynesian economics”, Cambridge Journal of Economics, Volume 34, Issue 6, 1145-1156, doi: 10.1093/cje/bem049.

Danby C. (2004), “Toward Gendered Post Keynesian Economics”, in J. King (ed), Elgar Companion to Post Keynesian Economics, Northampton M.A., Edward Elgar.

Danby C. (2013), “Gender”, in J. King (ed), Elgar Companion to Post

Keynesian Economics, Northampton M.A.: Edward Elgar.

Elson D. and N. Catagay (2000), “The social content of Macroeconomic Policies”, World Development, 28(7): 1347-1364.

European Parliament (2013a), Fact sheet on the European Union, Edition 2014, Luxembourg.

European Parliament (2013b), Gender aspects of the effects of the economic downturn and financial crisis on welfare systems, Luxembourg.

European Women’s Lobby Report (2012), The price of austerity, the impact of women’s right and Gender equality in Europe, posted on November, 16, 2012, retrieved on March, 29, 2014 (http://womenlobby.org/publications/reports/article/the-price-of-austerity-the-impact?lang=en).

EIGE (2013), Gender Equality Index Report, Germany, European Institute for Gender Equality.

Eurostat (2012), People at risk of poverty or social exclusion by age and gender, (http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/submitViewTableAction.do?dvsc=8).

Fraser N. (1997), Justice interruptus: critical reflections on the “Post socialist” condition, New York: Routledge.

Fraser N. (2008) in K. Olson (ed), Adding insult to injury. Nancy Fraser debates her critics, London: Verso.

Fraser N. (2013), How feminism became capitalism’s handmaiden – and how to reclaim it, The Guardian October, 14, 2013, retrieved on April, 5, 2014.

(http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/oct/14/feminism-capitalist-handmaiden-neoliberal).

Fraser N. and A. Honneth (2003), Redistribution or Recognition? A political philosophical exchange, London: Verso.

Forges Davanzati G., A. Pacella and R. Realfonzo (2009), “Fiscal policy in the monetary theory of production: An alternative to the “new consensus approach”, Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, 31, 4, 605-621, doi: 10.2753/PKE0160-3477310405.

Giavazzi F., T. Jappelli and M. Pagano (1999), “Searching for Non-Keynesian Effects of Fiscal Policy”, CSEF Working Paper, No. 16, February, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance.

Gill S. (1998), “European Governance and New Constitutionalism: Economic and Monetary Union and Alternatives to Disciplinary Neoliberalism in Europe”, New Political Economy 3(1): 5-26, doi:10.1080/13563469808406330.

Gill S. and A. Roberts (2011), “Macroeconomic Governance, Gendered Inequality and Global Crises”, in B. Yung et al (eds), Questioning Financial Governance from a Feminist perspective, London and New York: Routledge, 154-171.

Grown, C., Elson, D. and Cagatay, N. (2002), “Introduction to special issue on growth, trade, finance and gender inequality”, World Development, 28 (7), 1145-56.

Grown C. and S. Seguino (2011), Gender and Economics, Basingstoke: Palgrave McMillian.

Hein E. and L. Vogel (2008), “Distribution and growth reconsidered – empirical results for six OECD countries”, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 32(3),479-511, doi: 10.1093/cje/bem047.

ILO (2012a), Global Employment Trends for woman, Geneva, International Labour Organization.

ILO (2012b), Global Wage Report, Geneva: International Labour Organization.

ILO (2013), Global Employment Trends 2013: recovering from a second jobs dip, Geneva, International Labour Organization.

IMF (2010), World Economic Outlook 2010: Recovery, Risk, and Rebalancing, Washington D.C.: International Monetary Fund.

Karamessin M. and J. Rubery (2013), Woman and Austerity. The economic Crises and the future of gender equality, London: Routledge.

Keynes J.M. (1931), Essay in persuasion, London, Macmillan.

King J. (1996), An alternative Macroeconomic Theory: The Kaleckian Model and Post Keynesian economics, London: Kluwer Academic Publisher.

King J. (2001), “Labour and Unemployment” in Holt R. and S. Pressmann (eds), A new Guide to PostKeynesian Economics, London: Routledge, 65- 78.

King J. (ed) (2012), The Elgar Companion to PostKeynesian Economics, Northampton M.A.: Edward Elgar.

Klatzer E. and C. Schlager (2014), “Gender and Macroeconomics: Economic Governance in the European Union – reconfiguration of gendered power structures and erosion of gender equality”, in Evan M.,C, Hammings, M.

Henry, H. Johnstone, S. Madhok, A. Plomien and S. Wearing (eds), Feminist

Theory Handbook, London: SAGE.

Leschke J. and M. Jepsen (2012), “Crisis, policy responses and widening inequality in the UE”, International Labour Review, 151(4):289-312, doi: 10.1111/j.1564-913X.2012.00150.x.

Lethbridge J. (2012), Impact of the Global Economic Crisis and Austerity Measures on Woman, Public Service International Research Unit, Department of Economics and International Business, University of Greenwich.

Lavoie M. (1992), Foundations of Post-Keynesian Economic Analysis, Aldershot: Elgar.

Lavoie M. (2006), Introduction to PostKeynesian Economics, Basingstoke: Pelgrave MacMillan.

Lavoie M. (2003), “The tight Links between PostKeynesian and Feminist Economics” in (ed) Edward Fullbrook, The crises in Economics; The Post

Autistic Economics Movements :the first 600 Days, London, UK and New York, USA: Routledge, 189- 192.

Lawson T. (2006), “The nature of Heterodox Economics”, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 30(4) 483- 505, doi:10.1093/cje/bei093.

Bellofiore R., Marzola A. and F. Silva(1990), John M. Keynes. Linguaggio e metodo, Bergamo: Lubrina Editore.

McCloskey D. (1988), La retorica dell’economia. Scienza e letteratura nel discorso economico, Torino: Einaudi.

Michalitsch G., (2011), “Austerity Promotes Gender Hierarchies”, Social Europe Journal, February, 22, 2011, retrieved on March, 24, 2014

(http://www.social-europe.eu/2011/02/austerity-promotes-gender-hierarchies/).

Nelson J.A.( 1995), “Feminism and Economics”, The Journal of Economic

Perspectives, 9 (2) 131-148, doi: 10.1257/jep.9.2.131.

Nuti D. M. (2004), “Kalecki and Keynes revisited. Two original Approaches to demand determined income and much more besides”, in Z. L. Sadowski and

Szeworki A. (eds) 2004, Kalecki’s Economics Today, London and New York: Routledge.

Onaran O. and G. Galanis (2012), Is aggregate demand wage led or profit led? National and global effects, Conditions of Work and Employment Series N°40, Geneva, International Labour Organization.

Palley T.I. (2012), “The simple macroeconomics of fiscal austerity: public debt, deficits and deficit caps”, Intervention, European Journal of Economics and Economic Policies, 9(1): 91–107, doi: 10.4337/ejeep.2012.01.07.

Pasinetti L.L. (1998), “The myth (or folly) of the 3% deficit/GDP Maastricht ‘parameter’”, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 22 (1): 103-116.

Paulì G. (2013), Deregolamentazione del mercato del lavoro e genere. Una lettura postkeynesiana”, AG About Gender – International Journal of Gender Studies, Volume 2 (4), 18 -39.

Piromalli E. (2012), Giustizia sociale come riconoscimento, Milano-Udine: Mimesis.

Reinhart C. and K. Rogoff (2010), “Growth in a Time of Debt”, NBER Working Paper, No. 15639.

Robeynes I. (2001), “Esiste una metodologia economica femminista?” in Di Cori P. and P. Barazzetti (eds), Gli studi delle donne in Italia. Una guida critica, Roma: Carocci, 119- 145.

Robeynes I. (2003), Sen’s Capability approach and gender inequality: selecting relevant capabilities, Feminist economic, 9 (2-3), 61-92, London: Routledge, doi:10.1080/1354570022000078024.

Robeyns I. (2008), “Sen’s capability approach and feminist concerns”, in

Alkire S., F. Comim and M. Qizilbash (eds), The Capability Approach:

Concepts, Measures, Applications, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 82-104.

Rubery J. (2013), “Public sector adjustment and the threat to gender equality”, in Vaughan-Whitehead (ed), Public Sector Shock. The impact of Policy Retrenchment in Europe, Edward Elgar and ILO , 43-83.

Sawyer M. (1999, ed.), The legacy of Michael Kalecki, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.

Seguino S. and C. Grown (2006), “Feminist Kaleckian macroeconomic policy for developing countries”, Working Paper n. 446, Annandale-on- Hudson, NY: Levy Economics Institute.

Seguino S. (2010), “Gender, Distribution and Balance of Payment, Constrained Growth in Developing Countries”, Review of Political Economy, Vol. 22, 3, 373-404, doi: 10.1080/09538259.2010.491285.

Seguino S. (2013), “From micro-level gender relations to the macro economy and back again: Theory and policy”, in Figart D. and T. Warnecke (eds), Handbook of Research on Gender and Economic Life, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Smith M.J. and P. Villa (2012) "Gender Equality and the Evolution of the Europe 2020 Strategy" in R. Blanpain, W. Bromwich, O. Rymkevich, I. Senatori (eds), Labour Markets, Industrial Relations and Human Resources Management. From Recession to Recovery, Netherlands: Kluwer Law International, 3-23.

Smith M.J. and P. Villa (2013), “Recession and recovery. Making gender equality part of the solution”, in F. Bettio, J. Plantenga, M. Smith (eds), Gender and the European Labour Market, Oxon (UK): Routledge, 224-241 (Studies in the European Economy).

Todorova Z. (2009), “Employer of Last Resort Policy and Feminist Economics: Social Provisioning and Socialization of Investment”, MPRA Paper 16240, Germany, University Library of Munich.

Tcherneva P. and L.R Wray. (2005), “Gender and the Job Guarantee: The Impact of Argentina’s Jefes Program on Female Heads of Poor Households”, Working Paper N° 50, Kansas City, Missouri, Center for Full Employment and Price Stability.

Van Staveren I. (2010), “Post- Keynesianism meets feminist economics”, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 34 (6), 1123-44, doi: 10.1093/cje/ben033.

Vertova G. (2012), “Women on the Verge of a Nervous Breakdown”, in E. Papadopoulou and G. Sakellaridis, The political economy of public debt and austerity in the EU, Nissos Publications.

Villa P. and Smith P. (2013), “Policy in time of crisis: employment policy and gender equality in Europe” in Karamessini, M. and J. Rubery (eds), Women and Austerity. The Economic Crisis and the Future for Gender Equality, Abington: Routledge, 273-294.

Zezza G. (2012), “The impact of fiscal austerity in the Eurozone”, Review of Keynesian Economics, Inaugural Issue, Autumn 2012, 37- 54, doi: 10.4337/roke.2012.01.03.


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribuzione - Non commerciale - Non opere derivate 3.0 Italia License.