Strategie mediate da ELF per la promozione della dieta mediterranea come prodotto di lusso tra turisti e migranti


Abstract – This chapter introduces an original cognitive-pragmatic model that integrates Experiential Linguistics and Experiential Place Marketing approaches applied to the ‘emotional promotion’ of Responsible Tourism – a form of tourism aiming at advertising the tourists’ intercultural and human experience in socio-cultural situations normally perceived as problematic – such as the promotion of holiday destinations affected by migrants’ arrivals. The case study illustrated in this chapter is aimed at the exploration of different schemata regarding the socio-culturally marked food norms which come into contact and often in conflict in the course of the ELF-mediated communication between tourists and migrants who reside in the same seaside resorts. The objective of the research is to promote a Responsible Tourism that also includes eating habits aimed at the achievement of physical health and spiritual wellbeing. In an intercultural context like the one that underpins the case study, the dietary precepts existing in the various societies often account for a hybridization of specialized discourses: from the expected gastronomic discourse to the scientific-medical one, up to the religious and legal discourses. More specifically, the hybridization between the gastronomic and religious discourses is typical of many cultures tourists and migrants hosted by the seaside resorts belong to, informing their respective social and legal systems. In the case study under analysis, a sample of subjects with different linguacultural and ethnic backgrounds was selected (i.e., a male Chinese tourist, a female Israeli tourist and a male Nigerian migrant). These subjects were asked to share their food schemata, involving the Chinese cuisine and medicine as well as Jewish and Islamic dietary norms, in order to apply them to the creation of promotional slogans to advertise on a special website the Mediterranean Diet as a luxury product recommended by the restaurants of the seaside resorts that tourists and migrants were staying at. These participants were asked to read a popularized text on Nutrigenomics (i.e., the branch of genomic research affirming that the degree to which diet influences the balance between health and disease depends on an individual’s genetic makeup or ‘ethnic genotype’ determining their ‘race’). The text was also integrated with another one regarding the health benefits of the Mediterranean Diet. The goal was twofold: on the one hand, to associate a food tradition like the Mediterranean one, normally regarded as ‘humble cuisine’, to the well-known legal-religious and medical norms of other cultures and, on the other hand, to raise the prestige of the Mediterranean Diet contextualizing it in an advanced scientific domain like that of Nutrigenomics. Both goals aim at the re-evaluation of the Mediterranean diet as a luxury product to be promoted in the context of a Responsible Tourism that associates luxury with the psycho-physical wellbeing of the individual as well as that of the community as a whole. Through the ‘Think-aloud technique’, the participants’ schemata were explored as they were interpreting this text on the basis of which they were then expected to create their advertising slogans for the promotion of the Mediterranean Diet.

DOI Code: 10.1285/i22390359v20p69

Keywords: English as a Lingua Franca; Responsible Tourism; luxury marketing; intercultural communication; Think-aloud technique


de Beaugrande R. e Dressler W. 1981, Introduction to Text Linguistics, Longman, Londra.

Bell R.T. 1991, Translation and Translating, Longman, Londra.

Blum-Kulka S. 1986, Shifts of Cohesion and Coherence in Translation, in House J. e Blum-Kulka S. (a cura di), Interlingual and Intercultural Communication: Discourse and Cognition in Translation and Second Language Acquisition, Narr, Tubingen, pp. 17-35.

Carrell P.L. 1981, Culture-specific Schemata in L2 Comprehension, in Orem R. e Haskell J. (a cura di), Selected Papers from the Ninth Illinois TESOL/BE Annual Convention, the First Midwest TESOL Conference, Illinois TESOL/BE, Chicago, pp. 123-132.

Carrell P.L. 1983, Some Issues in the Role of Schemata, or Background Knowledge, in Second Language Comprehension, in “Reading in a Foreign Language” 1, pp. 81-92.

Carrell P.L. e Wallace B. 1983, Background Knowledge: Context and Familiarity in Reading Comprehension, in Clarke M. e Hanscombe J. (a cura di), On TESOL ’82, TESOL, Washington, D.C., pp. 295-308.

Edwards D. 1997, Discourse and Cognition, Sage, Londra.

Elugbe B.O. e Omamor A.P. 1991, Nigerian Pidgin: Background and Prospects, Heinemann, Ibadan.

Ericcson A.K. e Simon H.A. 1984, Protocol Analysis: Verbal Reports as Data, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Faerch C. e Kasper G. (a cura di) 1987, Introspection in Second Language Research, Multilingual Matters, Clevedon.

Gotti M. 1996, Il linguaggio della divulgazione: Problematiche di traduzione intralinguistica, in Cortese G. (a cura di), Tradurre i linguaggi settoriali, Cortina, Torino, pp. 217-235.

Grice H.P. 1975, Logic and Conversation, in Cole P. e Morgan J.L. (a cura di), Syntax and Semantics, Vol. 3: Speech Acts, Academic Press, New York, pp. 41-58.

Guido M.G. 2008, English as a Lingua Franca in Cross-cultural Immigration Domains, Peter Lang, Berna.

Guido M.G. 2012, ELF authentication and accommodation strategies in cross-cultural immigration domain, in “Journal of English as a Lingua Franca” 1 [2], pp. 219-240.

Hall E.T. 1990, Understanding Cultural Differences, Intercultural Press, Yarmouth, ME.

Halliday M.A.K. 1994, An Introduction to Functional Grammar, Edward Arnold, Londra.

Hosany S. e Prayag G. 2011, Patterns of Tourists’ Emotional Responses, Satisfaction, and Intention to Recommend, in “Journal of Business Research” 66 [6], pp. 730-737.

Jani D. e Han H. 2013, Personality, social comparison, consumption emotions, satisfaction, and behavioural intentions: how do these and other factors relate in a hotel setting?, in “International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management” 25 [7], pp. 970-933.

Lakoff G. e Johnson M. 1999, Philosophy in the Flesh: The Embodied Mind and its Challenge to Western Thought, Basic Books, New York.

Langacker R.W. 1991, Foundations of Cognitive Grammar. Volume II: Descriptive Application, Stanford University Press, Stanford.

Lin Y., Kerstetter D., Nawijin J. e Mitas O. 2014, Changes in emotions and their interactions with personality in a vacation context, in “Tourism Management” 40, pp. 416-425.

Ma J., Gao J., Scott N. e Ding P. 2013, Customer delight from theme park experiences: The antecedents of delight based on Cognitive Appraisal Theory, in “Annals of Tourism Research” 42, pp. 359-381.

Prayag G., Hosany S. e Odeh K. 2013, The role of tourists’ emotional experiences and satisfaction in understanding behavioural intentions, in “Journal of Destination Marketing & Management” 2, pp. 118-127.

Roseman I.J. 2001, A Model of Appraisal in the Emotion System: Integrating Theory, Research, and Application, in Scherer K.R., Schorr A. e Johnston T. (a cura di), Appraisal Processes in Emotion: Theory, Methods, Research, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 68-91.

Shinn T. e Whitley R. (a cura di) 1985, Expository Science: Forms and Functions of Popularisation, Reidel, Dordrecht.

Steffensen M.S. e Joag-Dev C. 1984, Cultural Knowledge and Reading, in Alderson C. e Urquhart A.H. (a cura di), Reading in a Foreign Language, Longman, Londra, pp. 48-64.

Sweetser E.E. 1990, From Etymology to Pragmatics: Metaphorical and Cultural Aspects of Semantic Structure, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Tang S.W. 2002, Focus and dak in Cantonese, in “Journal of Chinese Linguistics” 30, pp. 266-309.

Widdowson H.G. 1984, Reading and Communication, in Alderson C. e Urquhart A.H. (eds.), Reading in a Foreign Language, Longman, Londra, pp. 213-230.

Wilson P.T. e Anderson R.C. 1986, What they don’t Know will Hurt them: The Role of Prior Knowledge in Comprehension, in Orasanu J. (a cura di), Reading Comprehension: From Research to Practice, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 31-48.

Full Text: pdf


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribuzione - Non commerciale - Non opere derivate 3.0 Italia License.