Electoral Realignments within the Left in the Aftermath of Neoliberal Crises. A Critical Juncture Framework for Latin America and Southern Europe


Abstract


The Latin American "Turn to the Left" consisted in either the consolidation of traditional left-of-centre parties or the emergence of new anti-neoliberal populist projects that decisively shaped the respective national party systems in reaction to major neoliberal crises. Some Southern European countries similarly experienced the rise of new populist parties (Podemos, Syriza and the Five Star Movement) while in Portugal we witnessed the consolidation of the existing left-of-centre parties. This article proposes a middle-range theory to give a cross-regional account of the eventual emergence of different anti-neoliberal populist parties in the aftermath of a neoliberal economic crisis. The argument focuses on the heterogeneity of such an 'Anti-Neoliberal Populism' category, by looking at the party organisation and the relationship with the unions and with the anti-austerity social movements. The framework thus proposes four different categories of "successful political projects" emerged in the aftermath of the crisis: a "Labour-based Left" (in Uruguay and Portugal); a "party-rooted populism" (in Argentina and Greece); a "movement (based) populism" (in Bolivia and Spain); and a "leader-initiated populism" (in Venezuela and Italy).

Keywords: Populism; Social Movements; Party-Union Relations; Latin American Politics; Anti-Austerity Politics

References


Accornero G and Ramos Pinto P (2015) “’Mild Mannered’? Protest and Mobilisation in Portugal under Austerity, 2010–2013”, West European Politics, 38: 491-515.

Afonso A, Zartaloudis S and Papadopoulos Y (2015) “How party linkages shape austerity politics: clientelism and fiscal adjustment in Greece and Portugal during the eurozone crisis”, Journal of European Public Policy, 22: 315–334.

Ancelovici M (2014) “Crisis and Contention in Europe: A Political Process Account of Anti-Austerity Protests”. In H.J. Trenz, V. Guiraudon and C. Ruzza, The European Crisis: Contributions from Political Sociology, London: Palgrave.

Andretta M (2018) “Protest in Italy in times of crisis: a cross-government comparison”, South European Society and Politics, 1: 97-114.

Anria S (2014) Social Movements, Parties, and the Left in Latin America: the Bolivian MAS (Movement Towards Socialism) in comparative perspective (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

Aslanidis P (2016) “Populist Social Movements of the Great Recession”. Mobilization: An International Quarterly, 21: 301-321.

Barr R (2009) “Populists, Outsiders and Anti-Establishment Politics”, Party Politics, 15: 29-48.

Boyanovsky C (2010) El aluvión. Del Piquete al Gobierno: Los movimientos sociales y el Kirchnerismo. Buenos Aires: Sudamericana.

Bryson A, Ebbinghaus B and Visser J (2011) “Introduction: Causes, consequences and cures of union decline”, European Journal of Industrial Relations, 2: 97-105.

Caiani M and Graziano P (2019) “Understanding varieties of populism in times of crises”, West European Politics, 6: 1141-1158.

Castiglioni R and Rovira C (2016) “Challenges to Political Representation in Contemporary Chile”, Journal of Politics in Latin America, 3: 3-24.

Collier D and Munck G (2018) “Research on Critical Junctures: Template, Examples, Best Practices”. Accessed on 28 November 2020 http://www.critical-juncture.org

Della Porta D, Fernández J, Kouki H and Mosca L (2017) Movement Parties against Austerity. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Deseriis M and Vittori D (2019) “The Impact of Online Participation Platforms on the Internal Democracy of Two Southern European Parties: Podemos and the Five Star Movement”, International Journal of Communication, 13: 5696-5714.

Díez García R (2015). “Las bases sociales de la indignación: una perspectiva agregada sobre los factores asociados a la participación ciudadana en el movimiento 1-M”, Revista de Ciencias Sociales, 238: 41–84.

Etchemendy S (2011) Models of Economic Liberalization. Business, Workers and Compensation in Latin America, Spain and Portugal. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ferrera M (1996) “The 'Southern Model' of Welfare in Social Europe”, Journal of European Social Policy, 17: 17-37.

Filc D (2015) “Latin American Inclusive and European Exclusionary Populism: Colonialism as an Explanation”, Journal of Political Ideologies, 20: 263-283.

Font N, Graziano P and Tsakatika M (2019) “Varieties of Inclusionary Populism? SYRIZA, Podemos and Five Star Movement Compared”, Government and Opposition, advanced online publication, http://doi:10.1017/gov.2019.17.

Garay C (2010) Including Outsiders: Social Policy Expansion in Latin America (Doctoral Dissertation). University of California, Berkeley.

Gerbaudo P (2018) The Digital Party. London: Pluto Press.

Haggard S and Kaufmann R (2008) Development, Democracy, and Welfare States. Latin America, East Asia, and Eastern Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Handlin S and Collier R (2008) Reorganizing Popular Politics: Participation and the New Interest Regime in Latin America. University Park: Pennsylvania University Press.

Handlin S (2017) State Crisis in Fragile Democracies. Polarization and Political Regimes in South America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Heinisch R and Mazzoleni O (eds) (2016) Understanding Populist Party Organisation: The Radical Right in Western Europe. London: Palgrave.

Hellinger D (2003) “Visión política general: la caída del puntofijismo y el surgimiento del chavismo”. In S. Ellner, D. Hellinger (eds.), La política venezolana en la época de Chávez: clases, polarización y conflicto. Caracas: Nueva Sociedad: Consejo de Investigación de la Universidad de Oriente, pp. 43-74.

Hutter S and Kriesi HP (2019) European Party Politics in Times of Crisis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hyman R (2001) Understanding European Trade Unionism. Between Market, Class & Society. London: Sage.

Jansen R (2011) “Populist mobilization. A New Theoretical

Approach to Populism”, Sociological Theory, 29: 75-96.

Kanellopoulos K, Kostopoulos K, Papanikolopoulos D and Rongas V (2016) “Competing modes of coordination in the Greek anti-austerity campaign, 2010–2012”, Social Movement Studies, 16: 101-118.

Katsambekis G and Kioupkiolis A (Eds.) (2018) The Populist Radical Left in Europe. London: Routledge.

Katsambekis G (2020) “Constructing ‘the people’ of populism: a critique of the ideational approach from a discursive perspective”, Journal of Political Ideologies, OnLineFirst.

Keating M and McCrone D (2013) The Crisis of Social Democracy in Europe. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Kitschelt H (2000) “Linkages between Citizens and Politicians in Democratic Polities”, Comparative Political Studies, 33: 845-879.

Kitschelt H (2006) “Movement Parties”. In R. Katz, W. Crotty (eds.), Handbook of Party Politics, London, Sage, pp. 278-290.

Lanzaro J (ed.) (2004) La izquierda uruguaya entre la oposición y el gobierno. Montevideo: Fin de Siglo.

Levitsky S (2003) Transforming Labor-Based Parties in Latin America: Argentine Peronism in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lisi M (2016) ‘U-Turn: The Portuguese Radical Left from Marginality to Government Support’. South European Society and Politics, 21: 541-560.

Luna JP (2014) Segmented Representation. Political Party Strategies in Unequal Democracies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

MacAdam D and Tarrow S (2010) “Ballots and Barricades: On the Reciprocal Relationship between Elections and Social Movements”, Perspective on Politics, 8: 529-542.

Madrid R (2008) “The Rise of Ethnopopulism in Latin America”, World Politics, 60: 475-508.

March L (2011) Radical Left Parties in Contemporary Europe. Abingdon: Routledge.

Martín I (2015) “Podemos y otros modelos de partido-movimiento”, Revista Española de Sociología, 24: 107-114.

Moffitt B and Tormey S (2013) “Rethinking Populism: Politics, Mediatisation and Political Style”, Political Studies, 64: 381-397.

Morgan J (2011) Bankrupt Representation and Party System Collapse. University Park: Penn State University Press.

Mosca L (2015) “The Movimento 5 Stelle and Social Conflicts: Between Symbiosis and Cooptation”. In F. Tronconi (ed.), Beppe Grillo’s Five Star Movement, Burlington: Ashgate.

Mudde C and Rovira Kaltwasser C (2013) “Exclusionary vs. Inclusionary Populism: Comparing Contemporary Europe and Latin America”, Government and Oppositon, 48: 147-174.

Ostiguy P (2005) “Gauche Péroniste et non Peroniste dans le système de partis argentine”, Revue Internationale de Politique Comparée, 12: 299-330.

Padoan E (2017) “The Populist Re-Politicization. Some Lessons from South America and Southern Europe”. Partecipazione e Conflitto, 10: 517-543.

Padoan E (2019) “‘Part of the Elite’? Anti-Austerity Populism and Trade Unionism in Italy and Spain”. Revista de Estudios Políticos, 186: 137-170.

Padoan E (2020a). Anti-Neoliberal Populisms in Comparative Perspective. A LatinAmericanization of Southern Europe? New York: Routledge.

Panebianco A (1988) Modelli di partito. Organizzazione e potere nei partiti politici. Bologna: Il Mulino.

Pereyra S and Svampa M (2003) Entre la ruta y el barrio. La experiencia de las organizaciones piqueteras. Buenos Aires: Biblos.

Pérez S (2014) “Eurozone Crisis and Social Models: What We Can Learn from Italy and Spain”, Open Forum Working Papers #20. Minda de Ginzburg Center for European Studies, Harvard University.

Pérez V, Piñeiro R and Rosenblatt F (2019). How Party Activism Survives. Uruguay’s Frente Amplio . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pirro ALP (2018) “The polyvalent populism of the 5 Star Movement”, Journal of Contemporary European Studies, 26: 443-458.

Portos M (2016) “Movilización social en tiempos de recesión: un análisis de eventos de protesta en España, 2007-2015”, Revista Española de Ciencia Política, 41: 4-28.

Ramiro L and Verge T (2013) “Impulse and Decadence of Linkage Processes: Evidence from the Spanish Radical Left”, South European Society and Politics, 18: 41-60.

Retamozo M and Morris B (2015) “Sindicalismo y política. La Central de Trabajadores de la Argentina en tiempos kirchneristas”, Estudios Sociológicos, 33: 63-87.

Rigby M and García Calavia MA (2017) “Institutional resources as a source of trade union power in Southern Europe”, European Journal of Industrial Relations. Advance online publication. doi.org/10.1177/0959680117708369.

Roberts K (2014) Changing Course in Latin America: Party Systems in the Neoliberal Era. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Roberts K (2017) “Party politics in hard times: Comparative perspectives on the European and Latin American economic crises”, European Journal of Political Research, 56: 218-233.

Rueda D (2007) Social Democracy Inside Out. Partisanship and Labor Market Policy in Advanced Industrialized Democracies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Rueda D, Wibbels E and Altamirano M (2015) “The Origins of Dualism”. In P. Beramendi, S. Haeusermann, H. Kitschelt and H. Kriesi (eds.), The Politics of Advanced Capitalism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 89-111.

Silva E (2009) Challenging Neoliberalism in Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Silva E and Rossi F (eds.)(2018) Reshaping the Political Arena in Latin America: from Resisting Neoliberalism to the Second Incorporation. Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh University Press.

Simiti M (2014) Rage and protest: the case of the Greek indignant movement. GreeSE papers, 82, LSE.

Slater D and Simmons E (2010) “Informative Regress: Critical Antecedents in Comparative Politics”, Comparative Political Studies, 43: 886-917.

Spanakos A (2011) “Citizen Chávez. The State, Social Movements, and Publics”, Latin American Perspectives, 38: 14-27.

Streeck W (2011) Buying Time: The Delayed Crisis of Democratic Capitalism. London: Verso.

Stokes S (2001) Mandates and Democracy. Neoliberalism by Surprise in Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Tsakatika M and Lisi M (2013) “’Zippin’ up My Boots, Goin’ Back to My Roots’: Radical Left Parties in Southern Europe”; South European Society and Politics, 18: 1-19.

Vogiatzoglou M (2017) “Turbulent Flow: Anti-Austerity Mobilization in Greece”. In D. Della Porta, M. Andretta, T. Fernandes, F. O’Connor, E. Romanos and M. Vogiatzoglou (eds.), Late Neoliberalism and its Discontents in the Economic Crisis Comparing Social Movements in the European Periphery, London: Palgrave, pp. 99-130.

Weyland K (2001) “Clarifying a Contested Concept: Populism in the Study of Latin American Politics”, Comparative Politics, 34: 1-22.

Zamponi L (2012) “Why don't Italians Occupy?”. Hypotheses on a Failed Mobilisation. Social Movement Studies, 11: 416-426.

Zanotti L and Rovira Kaltwasser C (2017) “The comparative (party) politics of the Great Recession: Causes, consequences and future research agenda”, Comparative European Politics. Advanced online publication: doi: 10.1057/cep.2016.22.


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribuzione - Non commerciale - Non opere derivate 3.0 Italia License.