Social Movements and Interest Groups Compared. How Organisational Type Matters for Explaining Swedish Organisations' Advocacy Strategies


Abstract


The divide between interest groups and social movement studies runs deep, but present developments call for a renewed focus on the relevance of these analytical categories. Both of these two forms of collective action relate to organisations that are assumed to follow distinctive logics and strategies for political influence. This article aims to contribute to the debates on the analytical difference between interest groups and social movements by comparing their political strategies and addressing the relevance of the typology for explaining organisations' use of political strat-egies. The paper draws on a dataset resulting from a large survey among Swedish civil society organisations among which clear cases of interest group organisations and "old" and "new" social movement organisations (SMOs) were identified. The results show that the distinction between interest groups and social movement organisations has some analytical value when it comes to explaining the use of different types of strategies: e.g. direct lobbying and media-based and protest-based strategies. Also, the distinction between old and new SMOs is shown to be relevant because old SMOs seem to be in a way "in between" interest groups and new SMOs suggesting that social movements tend to develop over time and to become more similar to interest groups.

Keywords: Advocacy strategies; Civil society organisations; Interest groups; Organisational types; Social movements; Sweden

References


Amnå E. (2006), “Still a Trustworthy Ally? Civil Society and the Transformation of Scandinavian Democracy”, Journal of Civil Society, 2(1): 1–20.

Andrews K., and B. Edwards (2004), “Advocacy Organizations in the US Political Process”, Annual Review of Sociology, 30: 479–506.

Armstrong E. A., and T. Bartley (2013), “Organizations and Movements”, in D.A. Snow, D. della Porta, B. Klandermans, and D. McAdam (eds.), The Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social and Political Movements, Chichester (UK): Wiley-Blackwell.

Arvidson M., H. Johansson, A. Meeuwisse, and R. Scaramuzzino

(2018), “A Swedish culture of advocacy?”, Sociologisk Forskning, 55(2–3): 341–364.

Baroni L., B. Carroll, A. Chalmers, M.L. Munoz Marquez, and A. Rasmussen (2014), “Defining and Classifying Interest Groups”, Interest Groups and Advocacy, 3(2): 141–159.

Beyers J. (2004), “Voice and Access: Political Practices of European Interest Associations”, European Union Politics, 5(2): 211–240.

Beyers J., R. Eising, and W. Maloney (2008), “Researching Interest Group Politics in Europe and Elsewhere: Much we Study, Little we Know?”, West European Politics, 31(6): 1103–1128.

Beyers J., and B. Kerremans (2012), “Domestic Embeddedness and the Dynamics of Multilevel Venue Shopping in Four EU Member States”, Governance, 25(2): 263–290.

Binderkrantz A.S. (2005), “Interest Group Strategies: Navigating Between Privileged Access and Strategies of Pressure”, Political Studies, 53(4): 694–715.

Binderkrantz A.S. (2019), “Interest Group Framing in Denmark and the UK: Membership Representation or Public Appeal?”, Journal of European Public Policy. Published online April 4, 2019.

Binderkrantz A.S., and S. Krøyer (2012), “Customizing Strategy: Policy Goals and Interest Group Strategies”, Interest Groups & Advocacy, 1(1): 115–138.

Binderkrantz A.S., and A. Rasmussen (2015), “Comparing the Domestic and the EU Lobbying Context: Perceived Agenda-setting Influence in the Multi-level System of the European Union”, Journal of European Public Policy, 22(4): 552–569.

Buechler S. (2013), “New Social Movements and New Social Movement Theory”. In D.A. Snow, D. della Porta, B. Klandermans, and D. McAdam (eds.), The Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social and Political movements, Chichester (UK): Wiley-Blackwell.

Burstein P. (1999), “Social Movements and Public Policy”, in M. Giugni, D. McAdam, and C. Tilly (eds.), How Social Movements Matter, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Christiansen P.M., A.S. Nørgaard, H. Rommetvedt, T. Svensson, G. Thesen, and P. Öberg (2009), “Varieties of Democracy: Interest Groups and Corporatist Committees in Scandinavian Policy Making”, VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 21(1): 22–40.

Císař O. (2013), “Interest Groups and Social Movements”, in D.A. Snow, D. della Porta, B. Klandermans, and D. McAdam (eds.), The Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social and Political Movements, Chichester (UK): Wiley-Blackwell.

della Porta D., and M. Caiani (2009), Social Movements and Europeanization. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Diani M. (1992), “The Concept of Social Movement”, The Sociological Review, 40(1): 1–25.

Dür A. (2008), “Interest Groups in the European Union: How Powerful Are They?”, West European Politics, 31(6): 1212–1230.

Dür A., and G. Mateo (2012), “Who Lobbies the European Union? National Interest Groups in a Multilevel Polity”, Journal of European Public Policy, 19(7): 969–987.

Dür A., and G. Mateo (2013), “Gaining Access or Going Public? Interest Group Strategies in Five European Countries”, European Journal of Political Research, 52(5): 660–686.

Eising R. (2007), “Institutional Context, Organizational Resources, and Strategic Choices: Explaining Interest Group Access in the European Union”, European Union Politics, 11(3): 329–369.

Feltenius D. (2004), En pluralistisk maktordning – om pensionärsorganisationernas politiska inflytande, PhD. Diss. Umeå: Umeå University.

Feltenius D. (2008), “From Outsiders to Influential Insiders: Pensioners’ Organizations in the Policy Process in Sweden”, Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice, 10(1): 29–46.

Grant W. (2001), “Pressure Politics: The Changing World of Pressure Groups”, Parliamentary Affairs, 57(2): 408–419.

Gray V., and D. Lowery (2000), The Population Ecology of Interest Representation, Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Greenwood J., and M. Aspinwall (eds. 1998), Collective Action in the European Union: Interests and the New Politics of Associability, London/New York: Routledge.

Hartman L. (ed. 2011), Konkurrensens konsekvenser: Vad händer med svensk väl-färd. Stockholm: SNS.

Hermansson J., A. Lund, T. Svensson, and P.-O. Öberg (1999), Avkorporativisering och lobbyism, SOU 1999:121, Stockholm: Fakta info direkt.

Holyoke T.T. (2009), “Interest Group Competition and Coalition Formation”, American Journal of Political Science, 53(2): 360–375.

Hula K. (1999), Lobbying Together: Interest Group Coalitions in Legislative Politics, Washington: Georgetown University Press.

Jacobsson K., and E. Korolczuk (eds. 2017), Civil Society Revisited: Lessons from Poland, New York: Berghahn Books.

Jacobsson K., and S. Saxonberg (eds. 2013), Beyond NGO-ization: The Development of Social Movements in Central and Eastern Europe, Farnham: Ashgate.

Johansson H., and G. Scaramuzzino (2019), “The logics of digital advocacy: Between acts of political influence and presence”, New Media and Society, 21(7): 1528-1545.

Johansson H., R. Scaramuzzino, and M. Wennerhag (2018), “Multi-Level Strategies for Political Influence: How and Why do Domestic Civil Society Organisations Seek Political Influence at National and EU Levels?”, Journal of Contemporary European Research, 14(2): 68–86.

Klandermans B., and J. Smith (2002), “Survey Research: A Case for Comparative Designs”, in B. Klandermans and S. Staggenborg (eds.), Methods of Social Movement Research, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp. 3–32.

Kriesi H. (1996), “The Organizational Structure of New Social Movements in a Political Context”, in D. McAdam, J.D. McCarthy, and M.N. Zald (eds.), Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements: Political Opportunities, Mobilizing Structures, and Cultural Framings, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lewin L. (1992), Samhället och de organiserade intressena, Stockholm: Nordstedts.

Linde, S., and R. Scaramuzzino (2018), “Is the Church of Sweden an ‘ordinary’ civil society organization? – The advocacy activities of the Church in comparison to other civil society organizations in Sweden”, Nordic Journal of Religion and Society, 31(2): 118-138.

Lindvall J., and J. Sebring (2005), “Policy Reform and the Decline of Corporatism in Sweden”, West European Politics, 28(5): 1057–1074.

Lundberg E. (2013), “Does the Government Selection Process Promote or Hinder Pluralism? Exploring the Characteristics of Voluntary Organizations Invited to Public Consultations”, Journal of Civil Society, 9(1): 37–41.

Lundström T. (2004), Teorier om frivilligt socialt arbete: En diskussion om forskningens läge och organisationernas framtid. Sköndalsinstitutets skriftserie nr 22. Stockholm: Ersta Sköndal högskola.

Lundström T., and L. Svedberg (2003), “The Voluntary Sector in a Social Democratic Welfare State – The Case of Sweden”, Journal of Social Policy, 32(2): 217–238.

Lundström T., and F. Wijkström (1997), The Non-profit Sector in Sweden, Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Mahoney C. (2004), “The Power of Institutions: State and Interest Group Activity in the European Union”, European Union Politics, 5(4): 441–466.

Mahoney C., and F. Baumgartner (2015), “Partners in Advocacy: Lobbyists and Government Officials in Washington”, Journal of Politics, 77(1): 202–215.

Marks G., and D. McAdam (1996), “Social Movements and the Changing Structure of Political Opportunity in the European Union”, in G. Marks, F.W. Scharpf, P.C. Schmitter and W. Streeck (eds.), Governance in the European Union. London: SAGE, pp. 95–120.

Meeuwisse, A. and R. Scaramuzzino (eds.) (2019). Europeanization in Sweden: Opportunities and Challenges for Civil Society Organizations. New York: Berghahn Books.

Micheletti M. (1995), Civil Society and State Relations in Sweden, Aldershot: Avebury.

Naurin, D. (2001), Den demokratiske lobbyisten, Umeå: Boréa förlag.

Olsson L.-E., M. Nordfeldt, O. Larsson, and J. Kendall (2009), “Sweden: When Strong Third Sector Historical Roots meet EU Policy Processes”, in J. Kendall (ed.), Handbook on Third Sector policy in Europe: Multi-level Processes and Organized Civil Society, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 159–183.

Papakostas A. (2004), ”Civilsamhällets rationaliseringar”, Arkiv för studier i arbetarrörelsens historia, 91: 19–45.

Pierre J., and B. Rothstein (2003) (eds.), Välfärdsstat i otakt: Om politikens oväntade, oavsiktliga och oönskade effekter, Stockholm: Liber.

Princen S., and B. Kerremans (2008), “Opportunity Structures in the EU Multilevel System”, West European Politics, 31(6): 1129–1146.

Rokkan S. (1999), State Formation, Nation-building and Mass Politics in Europe: The theory of Stein Rokkan: Based on his Collected Works, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Rothstein B. (1992), Den korporativa staten. Stockholm: Nordstedts.

Rucht D. (1996), “The Impact of National Context on Social Movement Structures: A Cross-movement and Cross-national Comparison”, in D. McAdam, J.D. McCarthy and M.N. Zald (eds.), Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements: Political Opportunities, Mobilizing Structures, and Cultural Framings, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ruzza C. (2004), Europe and Civil Society: Movement Coalitions and European Institutions, Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Ruzza C. (2011), “Social Movements and the European Interest Intermediation of Public Interest Groups”, Journal of European Integration, 33(4): 453–469.

Scaramuzzino, R., and M. Wennerhag (2017), ”Vägen till Europa: Det svenska civilsamhället och EU”, in F. Wijkström, M. Reuter and A. Emami (eds.), Civilsamhället i det transnationella rummet. Stockholm: European Civil Society Press, pp. 151–183.

Scaramuzzino R., and M. Wennerhag (2019a), “The Survey Study”, in A. Meeuwisse and R. Scaramuzzino (eds.), Europeanization in Sweden: Opportunities and Challenges for Civil Society Organizations. New York: Berghahn Books, pp. 278–282.

Scaramuzzino R., and M. Wennerhag (2019b), “Factors Explaining Swedish Civil Society Organizations’ Europeanization”, in A. Meeuwisse and R. Scaramuzzino (eds.), Europeanization in Sweden: Opportunities and Challenges for Civil Society Organizations. New York: Berghahn Books, pp. 108–120.

SCB (2010), Det civila samhället 2010: Ett regeringsuppdrag med undersökningar från Statistiska centralbyrån. Örebro: Statistiska centralbyrån (Statistics Sweden).

Snow D.A., S.A. Soule, and H. Kriesi (2004), “Mapping the Terrain”, in D. Snow, S. Soule, and H. Kriesi (eds.) The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, pp. 3–16.

Sorurbakhsh L. (2013), “Population Ecology and European Interest Groups over Time: A dataset”, European Political Science, 13(1): 61–77.

Taylor V., and N. Van dyke (2004), “’Get up, Stand up’: Tactical Repertoires of Social Movements”, in D.A. Snow, S.A. Soule and H. Kriesi (eds.) The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, pp. 262–293

Thiel M., and E. Uçarer (2014), “Access and Agenda-setting in the European Union: Advocacy NGOs in Comparative Perspective”, Advocacy and Interest groups, 3(1): 99–116.

Trydegård G.-B. (2001), ”Välfärdstjänster till salu – privatisering och alternativa driftformer under 1990-talet”, in M. Szebehely (ed.), Välfärdstjänster i omvandling, SOU 2001:52, Stockholm: Fritzes, pp. 77–140.

Vogel, J., E. Amnå, I. Munck, and L. Häll (2003), Associational Life in Sweden: General Welfare, Social Capital, Training in Democracy. Stockholm: Statistics Sweden (Statistiska centralbyrån, SCB).

Wennerhag M. (2010), “Another Modernity is Possible? The Global Justice Movement and the Transformations of Politics”, Distinktion: Scandinavian Journal of Social Theory, 11(2): 25–49.


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribuzione - Non commerciale - Non opere derivate 3.0 Italia License.