Dinamica dell'errore umano e incidenti aerei


The analysis of the investigation of air incidents indicates among the main causes (about 80%) the crew's failures in interpersonal communications, in decision-making and in the exercise of leadership, rather than of shortcomings in training, low experience or high workload. The worst incidents in aviation history have, in fact, affected for an apparent paradox crews of long and proven experience. Errors as trivial as dangerous, such as the forgetfulness of the removal of the cart in the landing phase, are quite recurring and have led the specialists to develop interesting studies that have as an object man in his Psycho-physical integrity and interactions with the machines and the external environment. These studies are important not only for an operator in the field of aviation (pilot, designer, maintainer, air traffic controller) but affecting many business and professional sectors. In fact, there are no isolated cases of the neglect of gauze or pliers within the body of patients undergoing surgery or domestic accidents due to minor distractions that have led to disastrous events. These studies analyzing the errors in the incidents highlighted the importance of the human factor understood as that discipline which "deals with the application of the knowledge related to how the human being sees, feels, thinks and physically acts in Design and use of tools and machines, with the aim of protecting their health and integrity ". The principle of the human factor can therefore be applied to the design of simple objects, for example a pen, and to complex systems such as the design and management of a nuclear power plant. It is interesting the definition of human factor that the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) provides: "Human factors have as an object of study the people, while they carry out their tasks, their insertion into the working environment understood in the physical and interpersonal sense, their relationship to the tools of work and the procedures to follow. "The aim of this research is to pursue safety and efficiency. It is therefore a subject that collects a series of principles and studies related to the field of psychology, neuropsychology, ergonomics, engineering and cognitive science that aims to increase the productivity and performance of operators, aiming at the same time reducing errors, drawbacks and accidents. This article is an attempt to introduce the basic principles of cognitive and psychological sciences that apply to the human factor, dealing with processes through which information is selected, processed, stored, recovered from memory, reworked and used.

DOI Code: 10.1285/i17201632vXXIn37-38p63

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